Excellence in Law Enforcement Leadership
Policeleaders.com Feature Article
Why Leadership? - Part One
In many police agencies, the Command and Control approach to leadership requires that everyone be treated as "cookie-cutter cops" to be effective. Our cops are not created with cookie-cutters, it's time to stop treating them that way.
This three part series is going to look closely at the basic concepts of leadership as they apply to police organizations. Although we have explored many different leadership topics in this blog, we have yet to ask the question, ‘Why Leadership?”
Lets start by defining leadership. The IACP defines leadership as, “The process of influencing human behavior to achieve organizational goals that serve the public, while developing individuals, groups, and the organization for future service.” If we compare this to other contemporary definitions of leadership we see many similarities. Kouzes and Posner (The Leadership Challenge) define it as “The art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for shared aspirations.” The common theme among these and other definitions of leadership provide us a fairly simple definition of the term: Leadership is about influencing others.
How do we influence others? To answer this, lets do a compare and contrast to another form of managerial influence. I have previously written about the characteristics of “Command and Control” organizations and how many of these characteristics undermine the impact of positive leadership. Command and control organizations use the most basic form of motivational influence over organizational members. They rely on either punishment or reward as a means of motivating others to perform their duties. These organizations often use positional power to provide rewards, or coercive power to exact punishment for performance “failures”. The hallmark of the command and control approach is that, while performance rewards may or may not be realized, consequences for poor performance are assured.
This dual application of power as a means of influence supposes that all employees will think, react, and behave exactly the same in response to these basic efforts to motivate. In essence, it assumes and requires that our organizations are filled with “cookie-cutter cops” who are incapable or unwilling to have individual thoughts, goals, and values. When it is applied on organizational members who actually DO have their own thoughts, goals, and values, it tends to result in resentment, distrust, and fear. As a leadership approach, command and control is about effective as a ruler whack on the back of the hand.
The goal of every organizational leader is to pursue and achieve the long-term goals of the organization. This is our very reason for existence, and the reason why we have people within our organizations. Our people are not made with cookie-cutters. They don’t all have the same needs, values, and goals. Creative, thoughtful, and inspired employees can do remarkable things within our organizations, with proper and effective leadership influence. The effective methods used to influence others are as varied as their individual needs, values and goals. If you get to know them, you will know how to influence them.
It takes a leader to understand that, and leadership to make it work.
It's not always the big things that count the most
While leadership and leaders come in many different forms, nearly all strong and effective leaders have at least one thing in common: they pay attention to the little things that matter to their followers. Of the many leadership traits that are frequently mentioned as most admired, communication and engagement are nearly always present. In order to know what matters to people, you have to communicate with them. And you can’t communicate with people if you are not actively engaged with them on a regular basis.
Paying attention to the little things is important, and it can go a long way towards building trust and commitment among members of an organization. In the context of dealing with organizational issues, it is sometimes easy for leaders to lose perspective on the relative value of certain issues and problems, or to misinterpret their impact on others within the organization. We all have a tendency to focus on larger concerns because that’s where we feel our leadership skills should be applied. But it is important to remember that leadership is about influence, and without building that trust and commitment through communication and engagement, the degree of influence will always be diminished.
If you want to be a more effective leader, if you want people to follow you with passion and dedication; find out what is important to them. Find out what problems they deal with and what is preventing them from doing their jobs. And then do your best to fix it.
We Must Own Our Ethical Failures
“If every law enforcement officer and agency must suffer in loss of credibility from charges of unethical behavior by other officers, we cannot afford to take a passive view, shrugging the matter off as if none of our business”
Recently, while teaching a class on ethics to law enforcement officers, I showed this quote to the class and asked how many students agreed with the sentiment. Not surprisingly, nearly everyone did. They were a bit shocked to learn that the quote actually came from a report written by The President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice, which was published in 1967. Does that say something about the evolution of ethics in the law enforcement field? If a quote taken from a report nearly fifty years ago can still have relevance today, have we really come very far in our pursuit of professional ethics?
While I take some solace in the fact that the class members at least identified with the purpose of the quote, it is still a bit unsettling that we still find our profession struggling to overcome the ethical lapses of our own members. And these aren’t minor ethical lapses either. If you need a reminder of just how far we need to go to achieve the ethical and moral ideals of our profession, pick up a newspaper or turn on the news. On second thought, don’t. It won’t help your blood pressure.
The point of the quote, then and now, is that our cultural passivity to unethical behavior must be defeated from within, or it will never be defeated. We must stop looking the other way, as though these self-inflicted insults upon our profession are none of our business. Yes, members of other professions within our society also have ethical lapses. And yes, those ethical lapses don’t seem to undermine the status of those within those professions in the same way that our ethical lapses cause us all to lose credibility. It might not seem fair in comparison. But then, the very nature of our purpose and position within society has no comparison either.
We, as police professionals, exist to serve the public. We offer to do so with honor and with an ethical code that we use as evidence of our worthiness to serve. In return, we are entrusted with an unmatched level of authority and power over the very people that we serve. But the issuance of that authority comes with a contract, and inherent in that contract are certain expectations. Those expectations include adherence to those professional values, morals, and ethical behaviors that we hold high and claim to be our own. If we own them, so must we also own our corresponding ethical failures.
The myth of "Command and Control" Leadership
The supervisory environment in law enforcement agencies has long been dominated by what is commonly known as the “command and control” culture. While the evolution and development of this type of supervisory culture could be endlessly debated, its origination is no doubt rooted in the semi-militaristic structure of police agencies and the necessity of supervising police officers that, in the first decades of American policing, were often poorly qualified and critically under-trained. In its most simplistic form, “command and control” is an authoritarian style of supervision that survives almost exclusively through the practice of positional and coercive power. Decisional authority rests almost entirely with a few at the apex of the organizational chart, and neither initiative nor professional development are necessarily encouraged and, in its worst form, are ardently discouraged.
As the law enforcement profession has evolved, and as officers have become better educated and trained, more autonomous, and more capable of exercising effective decision-making; the need for “command and control” has steadily diminished, and is slowly being replaced by quality leadership practices. While there are a variety of forms of quality leadership strategies, nearly all embrace the concepts of the effective and ethical leadership practices that are recognized as paramount to organizational success and maintenance. Although the momentum and success of quality leadership programs is accelerating, there still lies within the profession a conflict between the new and the old; between the innovative, and the (supposedly) tried and true methods of command and control leadership.
The single largest contributing factor to this conflict is that many within our ranks still equate leadership with control, and they assume that to always exercise leadership over others they must also exercise control over others. While control in its time and place is necessary, leadership is not about control. To exercise control over something or someone requires the application of power to obtain a desired result. The most significant fault with this approach is that if the wrong type of power is used, or when the use of power is taken away, the results will always be less than satisfactory. Too often when this happens we revert back to our first nature of management and we try to make improvements by exercising even more control, usually with little resulting change.
Leadership, unlike control, is not about power; it is about influence. The use of control over others has inherent limitations, and requires that power be retained and focused on the leader in order to be used again later. Effective and ethical influence, on the other hand, can be achieved through countless quality leadership strategies, and empowers others by transferring the locus of leadership from leader to follower. After all, it is the results of the follower that are important, not the leader. From the followers perspective, the best leaders are those that inspire, lead by example, and put people above power. Evaluate any list comprised of the best traits of leaders and you will likely not find two words which have dominated the supervisory culture of law enforcement for decades; power and control.
The power of command and control, ultimately, is a mirage and is becoming less and less effective in contemporary law enforcement. Like a mirage, it is not power at all, it is only the appearance of power and it eventually evaporates along with its impact. The real power of leadership comes from the influence that a leader develops through quality leadership practices and from the amount of control that is given, not kept. Today’s law enforcement ranks are filled with followers that thrive under the influence of approval and encouragement, they deserve more than the myth of command and control leadership.
Why Leadership? – Part Two
Like a puzzle master, leaders are most effective when they show us how the pieces fit together.
In Part One of “Why Leadership?” we determined that leadership is primarily about influencing others, and that we can’t influence others until we know their individual goals and values. In Part Two we examine the relationship between leadership and the organizational mission, and we begin to see how leaders fit the puzzle pieces together to help others see the bigger picture.
Regardless of the type of organization, the first and primary purpose of leadership influence is to achieve organizational goals. We know that every organization has goals, or an organizational mission, which is essentially the reason that the organization exists. The role of any leader within an organization is to apply influence in the effort to improve the motivation and performance of those within the organization, which helps move the organization toward the achievement of its mission. The more effective we are in the application of our leadership influence, the closer we will come to achieving our goals for the organization.
The key link between leadership influence and the organizations mission is the leaders understanding of the essential human need we all have to belong to something greater than ourselves. Whether it is as a part of a team, a group, or a multi-national organization; we all want to be a part of an effort that aspires to do great things. Whenever we are a part of a sports team or a group of community volunteers that comes together to achieve their goals, we feel inspired and satisfied. The same is true for organizations. With a shared mission, and with effective leadership to motivate us and show us the way, we will try harder, work longer, and do more.
It is critically important, however, that we don’t confuse organizational goals with other ancillary outcomes of the organization. For example, making a profit is not an organizational goal for a private business; it is the by-product of the achievement of the organizations goals. Similarly, attaining a certain arrest or conviction rate is not an organizational goal for a police agency, it is an outcome that can be achieved through the pursuit of the mission of the organization. The purpose of the organizational mission is to take the organization to a higher level, and to inspire its members to reach for more than just measured outputs.
As an example, in 1980 Steve Jobs created the first mission statement for the Apple Computer Company. That mission statement read, “To make a contribution to the world by making tools for the mind that advance humankind.” (Imagine being hired in the early days of Apple Computer and being told, “This is your goal.”) With a mission statement that provided a visionary goal, and with Steve Jobs’ guiding leadership influence, is it any wonder Apple stands as one of the world’s most innovative organizations, and has defined the use and market of personal electronics? (By the way, they also make a profit.)
Apple is a great example of how an organizations mission statement establishes the vision and purpose for its members. But the mission statement alone is simply a lofty ideal without the influence of leadership. Much a like a puzzle in the box, the mission exists but can’t be clearly seen by everyone until we start to put the pieces together.
Just like the late Steve Jobs, effective leaders are puzzle masters. They create a puzzle picture of the mission for the organization, then they hand a few pieces of the puzzle to each member and show them what the picture would look like if they all put their pieces in the right place. When the picture is finished and the goals are reached, they applaud those that put it all together and made it work.
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“A boss creates fear, a leader confidence. A boss fixes blame, a leader corrects mistakes. A boss knows all, a leader asks questions. A boss makes work drudgery, a leader makes it interesting. A boss is interested in himself or herself, a leader is interested in the group.”
— Russell H. Ewing
Police History Photo
This month's Police History photo comes from the Dayton Ohio Police Department. Dayton has been credited with issuing the world's 1st speeding ticket in 1904. Harry Myers was traveling 12 miles per hour on West Third Street when he was ticketed. It happened four years before Harry (real name Henry C. Myers) became a hollywood actor. His career would include appearing in 257 silent and "talking" films as well as directing 48 films. Myers most famous role was with Charlie Chaplin in City Lights.
Leadership is about passion, not power. It is about elevating and crediting others, not seeking credit for your self. It is about learning from those around you, not lecturing them. Never in history did a great leader ever say, “I did it myself.”
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